CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS

Self-medication is dangerous, a trained professional is best able to treat your loulou. The drugs named are only for your veterinarian.

Photos under the text.


Chytridiomycosis is a fatal infectious disease affecting amphibians (anurans, urodeles and gymnophiones).
It is an emerging disease caused by the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which contributes to the decline of amphibian populations worldwide; In 2004, it already affected 30% of the world's amphibian species. “In less than thirty years, scientists estimate that more than 120 species have disappeared and 435 have greatly regressed” 3.
In Europe, the first massive mortalities due to this fungus were first observed in Spain, then in France, Switzerland and Great Britain. However, we must not give in to paranoia in our aquariums, no risk UNLESS incorporating river plants, insects, tadpoles, frogs or other anurans, there indeed you can potentially infect your tank (s) and decimate your entire population !
Symptoms: Lethargy and desquamation of the skin (in juveniles a few cm, mycosis of the mouth). The amphibians in our rivers have become sensitive to it, probably because of the pollution which has deprived them of a significant part of their immunity. Mortalities of spotted salamander and alytic toad have been observed in the Pyrenees.
A specialized veterinarian: "It's necessarily complicated, the majority of antifungals are contraindicated. We can use chloramphenicol which is an antibiotic but which seems to have an action on this fungus. But there can be side effects (aplasia, anemia) ... "
Another also recommended an antibiotic: Itraconazole, fluconazol against Chytridiomycosis. So you can rely on this advice from your own veterinarian. But I remind you that this mushroom cannot arrive in your bin if you respect the principles mentioned above.

At the beginning we can just see a dark spot in the mouth.
chitridiomycose, photo, axolotl
The ends start to darken on the axolotls of light colors.
chitridiomycose, photo, axolotl
chitridiomycose, photo, axolotl
The fungus spreads more and more so very quickly without treatment the outcome is fatal.
chitridiomycose, photo, axolotl
chitridiomycose, photo, axolotl
chitridiomycose, photo, axolotl
On dark colors the ends turn white.
Thanks to Valériane Fuchs for sharing her photos with Axolotls et Cie to help other members.

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"As far as chytridiomycosis is concerned, there are currently two types.

- Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which affects all kinds of amphibians all over the world

- Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans which is responsible for mortalities in European salamanders.

The "Bd" is worn without clinical signs by certain species of amphibians, but also by tadpoles. It only infects the keratinized areas of the skin (= only the beak, not vital, in tadpoles).

There is a big problem with the disappearance of species in the wild. The problem in captivity can also be dramatic ...

Doctor Sylvain Larrat

38 rue du Danemark, 56400 Brec'h Tel: 02 30 06 06 06

http://www.cliniqueveterinaire-benjaminfranklin.com/ .

Exclusive NAC veterinarian, exotic animals, wildlife and aquatic life

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Diplomat of the American College of Zoological Medicine

Associate Professor, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal

B. Franklin veterinary clinic, Auray, Brittany, France.

In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.

In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.

In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.

In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.

In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.

In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.

The animal can be a carrier without any clinical sign. So if we raise the juvenile from the egg and know that a single external element has never been brought into the aquarium, (such as plants, unboiled stones) no problem. On the other hand, if you buy, adopt an axolotl from a third party, nothing is guaranteed, unless you have the complete history of the individual.

A microscopic Asian fungus is causing a major biodiversity crisis, the largest ever. It has caused an unprecedented decline among hundreds of amphibian species, devouring their skin to the point of causing cardiac arrest. An ecological disaster that went unnoticed for a long time.

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A fungus that devours the skin of frogs

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis belongs to the chytrid family, aquatic fungi that usually consume decaying organic matter. But, unlike its congeners, Bd attacks all living amphibians: frogs, salamanders, newts ... It devours their skin and causes scaling and deep ulcerations. As amphibians use their highly permeable skin to breathe, the infection eventually causes cardiac arrest . Its virulence is particularly high in certain species, where mortality can reach 100%. More than 30 species of Atelopus, small frogs from Central America, have been completely wiped out.

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Global dissemination fostered by international exchanges

Identified in 1998, the "Bd" nevertheless began its devastation in the 1970s. But it was in the 1980s that the epizootic peaked, especially on the American continent. Native to Asia, the fungus quickly spread to the whole world thanks to international trade . Europe seems to have been less affected, but according to the researchers, the disaster may have occurred before it was noticed on the continent: massive declines in amphibians did indeed take place in the 1950s and 1960s.

Attributed at the time to the intensification of agriculture , they could actually have been caused by the pathogen. Curiously, the disease seems to have spared Asia, where it originates from. Researchers hypothesize that Asian amphibians were able to adapt to resist the pathogen. However, it is also possible that species are simply less well studied there.

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A new strain that decimates European salamanders

Fortunately, the decline appears to be slowing in recent years. But of the 501 species in decline, barely 12% have started to recover, and 39% are still experiencing a decline. In addition, the fungus is emerging in new places so far untouched, such as Papua New Guinea or Madagascar.

A new strain of the fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, recently landed in Europe via the amphibian trade and appears particularly virulent in local salamanders. A 2017 Nature study thus showed a massive collapse of the affected populations. The United States and Canada have already adopted preventive measures, banning the importation of 201 species of salamanders. In Europe, the risk of another mass extinction cannot be ruled out.

New strain !!!

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